Marc Armstrong

Marc Armstrong
Professor, Collegiate Fellow and Associate Dean for Research and Infrastructure
Education: 
PhD, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign
Office: 
313 Jessup Hall
Phone: 
319-335-0153
Research Interests: 
GIScience theory and applications; high-performance computing; spatial analysis and cartography

Encyclopedia of Geography:  http://knowledge.sagepub.com/view/geography/n57.xml

Google Scholar:  https://scholar.google.com/citations?user=0xaenwsAAAAJ&hl=en

ORCID:  http://orcid.org/0000-0002-5983-7417

I like maps. I like to interpret them and invent new ways to make them more effective in communicating geographical relationships.  And I also enjoy using computers to create new ways of analyzing information that is derived from maps and coordinates. Maps are important and maps are cool. You should learn to like them too. 

Some of my general areas of academic inquiry are focused on the visualization of quantitative data using thematic maps, analyzing computationally-complex geographical problems using high performance computers, and examining various facets of what is now becoming known as geo-privacy.  I have secondary interests in the history of cartography and geographic information systems.

Prof. Armstrong was named a College of Liberal Arts & Sciences Collegiate Fellow in 2005.   

Administrative Experience at The University of Iowa

  • 2017 - Present: Professor, Collegiate Fellow and Associate Dean for Research and Infrastructure
  • 2014 - 2016: Associate Dean for Graduate and Online Education, CLAS
  • 2012-2014: Interim Chair, Department of Cinema and Comparative Literature
  • 2011-2013: Dean’s Administrative Fellow, College of Liberal Arts and Sciences
  • 2011-2013: Interim Chair, Department of Communication Studies
  • 2000-2012: Chair, Department of Geography
  • 2010-2011: Interim Director, Division of World Languages, Literatures, and Cultures
  • 2010-2011: Interim Chair, Department of Asian and Slavic Languages and Literatures
  • 2008-2010: Administrative Fellow, College of Liberal Arts and Sciences
  • 2007-2009: Interim Director, School of Journalism and Mass Communication
  • 2006 (Fall): Interim Associate Dean for Research, College of Liberal Arts and Sciences
  • 2005-2007: Administrative Fellow, College of Liberal Arts and Sciences
Courses: 
  • Introduction to Cartography and Map Analysis
  • Principles of Geographic Information Systems
  • Analytical Cartography
  • Foundations of GIS
  • Topics in Geographic Information Science
Graduate Advisees: 
  • David Bennett, Ph.D. 1994, Professor, University of Iowa: Geographic information science, terrain feature extraction, knowledge-based geographical analysis
  • Panagiotis (Panos) Lolonis, Ph.D. 1994, Hellenic Mapping Consortium, Athens, Greece: Geographic information science, knowledge-based geographical analysis, locational modeling
  • Demetrius-Kl. D. Rokos, Ph.D. 1995, Hellenic Mapping Consortium, Athens, Greece: Geographic information science, terrain analysis, computational geography
  • Jayajit (Jay) Chakraborty, Ph.D. 1998, Professor, University of Texas, El Paso, TX: Geographic Information Science, GIS-based demographic and environmental hazards analysis
  • Ningchuan Xiao, Ph.D. 2003, Associate Professor, Ohio State University: Geographic Information Science
  • Shaowen Wang, Ph.D. 2004, Centennial Professor, The University of Illinois: Geographic Information Science
  • David Haynes, Ph.D. 2014, Post-Doctoral Research Associate, Terra Populus Project, University of Minnesota
Grants & Funding: 
  • 1997: National Science Foundation (Instrumentation and Laboratory Improvement and Geography and Regional Science Programs), "ENVISAGE: Environmental Visualization and Geographic Exploration" $280,000 (includes matching funds) with J.R. Brown.
  • National Aeronautics and Space Administration, "Project LIVE: Laboratory for the Immersive Visualization of the Environment", $344,772 (includes matching funds), with J. Brown, G. Carmichael and G.P. Malanson.
  • 1995: National Institute for Global Environmental Change. "Maintaining Fine-Scale Information While Coarsening Scale in an Ecological Simulation" with G.P. Malanson.
  • United States Department of Education, Fund for the Improvement of Postsecondary Education (FIPSE), 1994. "Improving Public Health Using Geographic Information and Analysis", with G. Rushton.
  • 1993: United States Department of Education. "Geographic Information Systems Literacy Institute".
  • 1991: National Science Foundation Undergraduate Curriculum Development in Engineering, Mathematics and the Sciences Program. "A Hypermedia Knowledge-Based Approach to Introductory Cartography".
  • 1990: National Science Foundation Geography and Regional Science, and Information Technologies Programs. "Improving Human-Computer Interaction in Locational Decision-Making", with P.J. Densham.
Selected Publications: 

(Within each year: first books, then journals, then book chapters, and finally proceedings)

2017

Armstrong, M.P., Tsou, M.-H., and Seidl, D. GeoPrivacy. In Reference Module in Earth Systems and Environmental Sciences. Elsevier, 2017, ISBN 9780124095489, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-12-409548-9.09629-9. ( http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780124095489096299 )

2016

Editor-in-Chief: D. Richardson; General Editors: N. Castree, M. F. Goodchild, A. Kobayashi, W. Liu, R. A. Marston; Section Editors: M. Armstrong, D. Butler, F. Collins, P. Daniels, D. Demeritt, M. Dunford, S. Eden, K. Foote, C. He, A. Jeffrey, R. Kearns, L. Kong, M-P. Kwan, H. Lin, W. Liu, S. Luzzadder-Beach, G. Malanson, S. Manson, J. Murphy, A. Nayak, D. O’Sullivan, A. Paasi, L. Peake, M. Pelling, G. Pratt, J-P. Rodrigue, R. Schaetzl, R. Schroeder, M. Shepherd, E. Sheppard, M. Stoffel, M-H. Tsou, D. Wilson, G. Wilson, and M. Yuan. The International Encyclopedia of Geography: People, the Earth, Environment, and Technology. New York, NY: John Wiley. ISBN: 9781118786352,  DOI: 10.1002/9781118786352

Sugumaran, R. and Armstrong, M.P. Forthcoming.  Cloud computing. The International Encyclopedia of Geography: People, the Earth, Environment, and Technology. New York, NY: John Wiley

2015

Rushton, G., Armstrong, M.P., Gittler, J., Greene, B., Pavlik, C.E., West, M. and Zimmerman, D. Geocoding in cancer research: A review. In P. Leith (ed.) Privacy in the Information Society, Volume II. Burlington, VT: Ashgate. (Reprinted from American Journal of Preventive Medicine 30 (2, Supplement 1): S16-S24, 2006.)

Sugumaran, R., Hegeman, J.W., Sardeshmukh, V.B., and Armstrong, M.P. Processing remote sensing data using cloud computing environments. In P. S. Thenkabail (ed.) Remotely Sensed Data Characterization, Classification, and Accuracies, New York, NY: Taylor and Francis, pp. 553-564.

2014

Hegeman, J.W., Sardeshmukh, V.B, Sugumaran, R. and Armstrong, M.P. Distributed LiDAR data processing in a high-memory cloud-computing environment. Annals of GIS, 20: (4): 255-264.

Sugumaran R., Burnett, J., and Armstrong M.P.  Using a cloud computing environment to process large 3D spatial datasets. H. Karimi (ed.) Big Data: Techniques and Technologies in Geoinformatics. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press, pp. 53-65.

2013   

Armstrong, M.P. and Hopkins, L.D.  Fractals in context: fractal enhancement for thematic display of topologically stored data.  B. Wellar, (ed.) Auto Carto Six Retrospective, Ottawa, ON: Information Research Board Inc, pp. 125-129. ISBN: 978-0-9921435-0-3.

2012

Xiao, N. and Armstrong, M.P. Towards a multiobjective view of cartographic design.  Cartography and Geographic Information Science, 39 (2): 76-86.

Armstrong, M.P., Nyerges, T.L., Wang, S. and Wright, D. Connecting geospatial information to society through cyberinfrastructure. Chapter 6, in T. Nyerges, H. Couclelis and R. McMaster (eds.) Handbook of GIS and Society Research.  Newbury Park, CA: Sage Publications, pp. 109-122.

2010

Bennett, D. A., and Armstrong, M.P. Fundamentals of geographic information systems. John Bossler (editor), Manual of Geospatial Science and Technology (2nd edition) New York, NY: Taylor and Francis, pp. 525-547.

2009

Wang, S. and Armstrong, M.P. A theoretical approach to the use of cyberinfrastructure in geographical analysis. International Journal of Geographical Information Science 23 (2): 169-193.

Haynes, D. and Armstrong, M.P. Population reallocation methods to support emergency evacuation planning. Earthzine (An online publication of the IEEE Committee on Earth Observation), available at http://www.earthzine.org/.

2008

Zhang, X. and Armstrong, M.P. Genetic algorithms and the corridor location problem: Multiple objectives and alternative solutions. Environment and Planning B: Planning and Design 35 (1): 148-168.

Armstrong, M.P. and Densham, P.J. Cartographic support for locational problem-solving by groups. International Journal of Geographical Information Science 22 (7): 721-749.

Wang, S., Cowles, M. K., and Armstrong, M. P. Grid computing of spatial statistics: using the TeraGrid for Gi*(d) analysis. Concurrency and Computation: Practice and Experience, 20 (14): 1697-1720.

2007

Rushton, G., Armstrong, M.P., Gittler, J., Greene, B.R., Pavlik, C.E., West, M.M., and Zimmerman, D.L. (editors) Geocoding Health Data. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press.

National Research Council. (Committee on Confidentiality of Linked Social-Spatial Information: Gutmann, M., Stern, P., Armstrong, M.P., Balk, D., Green, K., Levine, F., Onsrud, H., Reiter, J., and Rindfuss, R.) Putting People on the Map: Protecting Confidentiality with Linked Social-Spatial Data. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press.

Xiao, N., Calder, C., and Armstrong, M.P. Assessing the effect of attribute uncertainty on the robustness of choropleth map classification. International Journal of Geographical Information Science 21 (1-2): 121-144.

Xiao, N. Bennett, D.A. and Armstrong, M.P. Interactive evolutionary approaches to multiobjective spatial decision making: a synthetic review.Computers, Environment and Urban Systems 31 (3): 232-252

Bennett, D.A., Armstrong, M.P., Mount. J.D. 2007. MoGeo: A location-based educational service. In Lecture Notes in Geoinformation and Cartography: Location Based Services and Telecartography, edited by G. Gartner, W. Cartwright, and M.P. Peterson, Springer: New York, pp. 493-508.

Yan, J., Cowles, M. K., Wang, S. and Armstrong, M.P. Parallelizing MCMC for Bayesian spatiotemporal geostatistical models. Statistics and Computing 17 (4): 323-335.

Armstrong, M.P. and Tiwari, C. Geocoding methods, materials, and first steps toward a geocoding error budget. Rushton, G., Armstrong, M.P., Gittler, J., Greene, B.R., Pavlik, C.E., West, M.M., and Zimmerman, D.L. (editors) Geocoding Health Data. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press, pp. 11-35.

Armstrong, M.P., Greene, B, and Rushton, G. Using geocodes to estimate distances and geographic accessibility for cancer prevention and control. Rushton, G., Armstrong, M.P., Gittler, J., Greene, B.R., Pavlik, C.E., West, M.M., and Zimmerman, D.L. (editors) Geocoding Health Data. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press, pp. 181-194.

Zimmerman, D.L., Armstrong, M.P. and Rushton, G. Alternative techniques for masking geographic detail to protect privacy. Rushton, G., Armstrong, M.P., Gittler, J., Greene, B.R., Pavlik, C.E., West, M.M., and Zimmerman, D.L. (editors) Geocoding Health Data. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press, pp. 127-138.

2006

National Research Council. (Committee on Basic and Applied Research Priorities in Geospatial Science for the National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency: Clarke, K.C., Armstrong, M.P., Bhaduri, B.L., Buttenfield, B.P., Gahegan, M.N., Jackson, M.J., Shekar, S., and Tucker, C.) Priorities for GEOINT Research at the National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency. Washington DC: The National Academies Press.

Rushton, G., Armstrong, M.P., Gittler, J., Greene, B., Pavlik, C.E., West, M. and Zimmerman, D. Geocoding in cancer research: A review. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 30 (2, Supplement 1): S16-S24.

Xiao, N. and Armstrong, M.P. ChoroWare: A software toolkit for choropleth map classification. Geographical Analysis 38 (1): 102-121.

Armstrong, M.P. The Illinois Resource Information System: Early innovations in geographic information systems design. Cartography and Geographic Information Science 33 (2): 97-114.

Mount, J., Bennett, D.A., and Armstrong, M.P. Mobile geographic education: The MoGeo system. In E. Stefanakis, M.P. Peterson, C. Armenakis, V. Delis (eds), Lecture Notes in Geoinformation and Cartography: Geographic Hypermedia- Concepts and Systems Springer: Berlin, pp. 447-465.

2005

Armstrong, M.P., Wang, S., and Cowles, M. Using a computational grid for geographic information analysis. The Professional Geographer 57(3): 365-375.

Armstrong, M.P. and Bennett, D.A. A manifesto on mobile computing for geographic education. The Professional Geographer 57(4):506-513.

Xiao, N. and Armstrong, M.P. Exploring the visual correlation of choropleth maps using an evolutionary algorithm. Cartography and Geographic Information Science, 32(4):347-358.

Armstrong, M.P and Ruggles, A. Geographic information technologies and personal privacy. Cartographica, 40(4):63-73.

Wang, S., Armstrong, M. P., Ni, J., Liu, Y. GISolve: A grid-based problem solving environment for computationally intensive geographic information analysis. Proceedings of the 14th International Symposium on High Performance Distributed Computing (HPDC-14) Challenges of Large Applications in Distributed Environments (CLADE) Workshop, IEEE Press, pp. 3-12.

Mount, J., Armstrong, M.P. and Bennett, D.A. Field-based geographic education using mobile computers. Proceedings of the Join International Cartographic Assocation Seminar on Internet-based Cartographic Teaching and Learning, Madrid, Spain, pp. 54-59.

Zhang, X. and Armstrong, M.P. Using a genetic algorithm to generate alternatives for multiobjective corridor location problems. Geocomputation 2005, Proceedings of the 8th International Conference. School of Natural Resources and the Environment, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI. Unpaged CD.

Wang, S. and Armstrong, M.P. A theory of the spatial computational domain. Geocomputation 2005, Proceedings of the 8th International Conference. School of Natural Resources and the Environment, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI. Unpaged CD.

Bennett, D.A., Armstrong, M.P., and Mount, J.D. MoGeo: A location-based educational service. Proceedings of the 3rd Symposium on Location Based Services & TeleCartography, Vienna, Austria, pp. 217-222.

2004

Bennett, D.A., Xiao, N. and Armstrong, M.P. Exploring the geographic consequences of public policies using evolutionary algorithms. Annals of the Association of American Geographers, 94 (4): 827-847.

Chakraborty J. and Armstrong M. P. Thinking outside the circle: using geographical knowledge to focus environmental risk assessment investigations. In D. Janelle, B. Warf, and K. Hansen (eds.) WorldMinds: Geographical Perspectives on 100 Problems. Dordrecht, The Netherlands: Kluwer Academic Publications, pp. 435-442.

Mount, J., Armstrong, M.P. and Bennett, D. Using mobile GIS in educational settings. Proceedings of UPIMap2004, The First International Joint Workshop on Ubiquitous, Pervasive and Internet Mapping, Tokyo, Japan, pp. 41-50.

2003

Wang, S. and Armstrong, M.P. A quadtree approach to domain decomposition for spatial interpolation in grid computing environments. Parallel Computing, 29 (10): 1481-1504.

Armstrong, M.P., Xiao, N. and Bennett, D.A. Using genetic algorithms to create multicriteria class intervals for choropleth maps. Annals of the Association of American Geographers, 93 (3) 595-623.

Densham, P.J. and Armstrong, M.P. Integrative data structures for collaborative modeling and visualisation in spatial decision support systems. Forthcoming in The Encyclopedia of Life Support Systems, London, UK: EOLSS Publishers Co. Ltd.

Xiao, N. and Armstrong , M.P . A specialized island model and its application in multiobjective optimization. Genetic and Evolutionary Computation GECCO 2003 (Volume 2) Lecture Notes in Computer Science 2724, Heidelberg: Springer Verlag, pp. 1530-1540.

Xiao, N. Bennett, D.A. and Armstrong, M.P. Solving spatio-temporal optimization problems with genetic algorithms: A case study of a bald cypress seed dispersal and establishment model. In Parks, BO, Clarke KM, Crane MP, editors. Proceedings of the 4th International Conference on Integrating Geographic Information Systems and Environmental Modeling: Problems, Prospectus, and Needs for Research. [CD-ROM, ISBN: 0-9743307-0-1]. GIS/EM4 Conference; 2000 Sep 2-8; The Banff Centre, Banff, (AB) Canada. [Jointly published] Boulder: University of Colorado - Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Sciences, Denver: US Geologic Survey - Center for Biological Informatics, and Boulder: NOAA National Geophysical Data Center - Ecosystem Informatics (Includes proceedings of GIS/EM3 conference).

2002

Xiao, N., Bennett, D.A. and Armstrong, M.P. Using evolutionary algorithms to generate alternatives for multiobjective site-search problems. Environment and Planning A, 34 (4): 639-656.

Armstrong, M.P. Geographic information technologies and their potentially erosive effects on personal privacy. Studies in the Social Sciences, 27 (1): 19-28.

Pavlik, C.E. and Armstrong, M.P. Parallel processing of spatial series. In O.V. Burton, D. Herr, and T. Finnegan eds. Wayfarer: Charting Advances in Social Science and Humanities Computing. A CD accompanying Computing in the Social Sciences and Humanities, Urbana, IL: University of Illinois Press.

Wang, S., Bennett, D. A., Armstrong, M. P., Rajagopal, R., and Brands, E. Using grid-enabled teleimmersive spatial decision support systems (TIDSS) to visualize uncertainty for water quality protection in agroecosystems. Proceedings of the International Conference of Geoinformatics 2002 for Global Change Studies and Sustainable Development, 1-3, June, 2002, Nanjing University, Nanjing, China.

2001

Chakraborty, J. and Armstrong, M.P. Assessing the impact of airborne toxic releases on populations with special needs. The Professional Geographer 53 (1): 119-131.

Bennett, D. A., and Armstrong, M.P. Fundamentals of geographic information systems. John Bossler (ed) Manual of Geospatial Science and Technology New York, NY: Taylor and Francis, pp. 411-430.

2000

Armstrong, M.P. Geography and computational science. Annals of the Association of American Geographers, 90 (1): 146-156.

1999

Cramer, B.E and Armstrong, M.P. An evaluation of domain decomposition strategies for parallel spatial interpolation of surfaces. Geographical Analysis, 31 (2): 148-168.

Zimmerman, D., Pavlik, C.E., Ruggles, A. and Armstrong, M.P. An experimental comparison of ordinary and universal kriging and inverse distance weighting. Mathematical Geology, 31 (4): 375-390.

Armstrong, M.P., Rushton, G. and Zimmerman, D.L. Geographically masking health data to preserve confidentiality. Statistics in Medicine, 18 (5): 497-525.

Bennett, D.A., Wade, G.A. and Armstrong, M.P. Exploring the solution space of semi-structured geographical problems using genetic algorithms. Transactions in GIS, 3 (1): 51-71.

Armstrong, M.P. and Ruggles, A.J. Map hacking: On the use of inverse address-matching to discover individual identities from point-mapped information sources. Geographic Information and Society Conference: Conference Papers, June 20-22, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN, unpaged: http://ir.uiowa.edu/geog_pubs/205

1998

Rokos, D. Kl. and Armstrong, M.P. Experiments in the identification and extraction of terrain features using a PC-based parallel computer. Photogrammetric Engineering and Remote Sensing, 64 (2): 135-142.

Ruggles, A.J. and Armstrong, M.P. Toward a conceptual framework for the cartographic visualization of network information. Cartographica, 34 (1): 33-48.

Armstrong, M.P. and Marciano, R. A network of workstations (NOW) approach to spatial data analysis: The case of distributed parallel interpolation. Proceedings of the Eighth International Symposium on Spatial Data Handling, Burnaby, BC: International Geographical Union, pp. 287-296.

1997

Malanson, G.P. and Armstrong, M.P. Issues in spatial representation: effects of cell number and between-cell step size. Geographical and Environmental Modelling, 1 (1):47-64.

Chakraborty, J. and Armstrong, M.P. Exploring the use of buffer analysis for the identification of impacted areas in environmental equity assessment. Cartography and Geographic Information Systems, 24 (3): 145-157.

Armstrong, M.P. and Marciano, R.J. Massively parallel strategies for local spatial interpolation. Computers & Geosciences, 23 (8): 859-867.

Densham, P.J. and Armstrong, M.P. Spatial analysis. Chapter 17 in R.G. Healey, S. Dowers, B.M. Gittings, M.J. Mineter, eds. Parallel Processing Algorithms for GIS. London, UK: Taylor and Francis, pp. 387-413.

Armstrong, M.P. and Densham, P.J. Toward a network map algebra. Proceedings of the Thirteenth International Symposium on Automated Cartography (Auto-Carto 13), Bethesda, MD: American Congress on Surveying and Mapping, pp 1-10.

Bennett, D.A., Wade, G. and Armstrong, M.P. Linking geographic models with 2D genetic algorithms to explore semi-structured spatial problems. Proceedings of the Thirteenth International Symposium on Automated Cartography (Auto-Carto 13), Bethesda, MD: American Congress on Surveying and Mapping, pp. 234-243.

Chakraborty, J. and Armstrong, M.P. Assessing the impact of segregation on environmental equity using GIS. Proceedings of GIS/LIS'97. Bethesda, MD: American Congress on Surveying and Mapping (unpaged CD-ROM).

Armstrong, M.P. Emerging technologies and the changing nature of work in GIS. Proceedings of GIS/LIS'97. Bethesda, MD: American Congress on Surveying and Mapping (unpaged CD-ROM).

Cramer, B. and Armstrong, M.P. Evaluating parallel approaches to the interpolation of spatially inhomogenous data. Proceedings of GIS/LIS97. Bethesda, MD: American Congress on Surveying and Mapping (unpaged CD-ROM).

Armstrong, M.P., Rushton, G., Chakraborty, J., Ibaugh, A., and Ruggles, A. Spatial Data Systems for Transportation Planning. Public Policy Center, The University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA.

1996

Bennett, D.A. and Armstrong, M.P. A knowledge based approach to topographic feature extraction. Cartography and Geographic Information Systems, 23 (1) 3-19.

Armstrong, M.P. and Marciano, R. Local interpolation using a distributed parallel supercomputer. International Journal of Geographical Information Systems, 10 (6): 713-729.

Chakraborty, J. and Armstrong, M.P. Using geographic plume analysis to assess community vulnerability to hazardous accidents. Computers, Environment and Urban Systems, 19 (5/6): 341-356.

Rokos, D. and Armstrong, M.P. Using Linda to compute spatial autocorrelation in parallel. Computers & Geosciences, 22 (5): 425-432.

Malanson, G.P. and Armstrong, M.P. Dispersal probability and forest diversity in a fragmented landscape. Ecological Modelling, 87: 91-102.

Malanson, G.P., Armstrong, M.P. and Bennett, D.A. Fragmented forest response to climatic warming and disturbance. In M.F. Goodchild, L.T. Steyaert, B.O. Parks, M.P. Crane, C.A. Johnston, D.R. Maidment, and S.J. Glendinning, eds. GIS and Environmental Modeling: Progress and Research Issues, Ft. Collins, CO: GIS World, Inc., pp. 243-247.

Bennett, D.A., Armstrong, M.P. and Weirich, F. An object-oriented modelbase management system for environmental simulation. In M.F. Goodchild, L.T. Steyaert, B.O. Parks, M.P. Crane, C.A. Johnston, D.R. Maidment, and S.J. Glendinning, eds. GIS and Environmental Modeling: Progress and Research Issues, Ft. Collins, CO: GIS World, Inc., pp. 439-443.

Bennett, D.A., Armstrong, M.P. and Wade, G.A. Agent mediated consensus-building for environmental problems: A genetic algorithm approach. In Proceedings, Third International Conference/Workshop on Integrating GIS and Environmental Modeling, Santa Fe, NM, January 21-26, 1996. Santa Barbara, CA: National Center for Geographic Information and Analysis. CD-ROM and http://www.ncgia.ucsb.edu/conf/SANTA_FE_CD-ROM/main.html.

Chakraborty, J. and Armstrong, M.P. A comparison of GIS-based approaches to environmental equity analysis. Proceedings of GIS/LIS 96. Bethesda, MD: American Congress on Surveying and Mapping, pp. 839-852.

Cramer, B.E. and Armstrong, M.P. A distributed parallel approach to computation of a spatial statistic. Proceedings of GIS/LIS 96. Bethesda, MD: American Congress on Surveying and Mapping, pp. 280-294.

Armstrong, M.P. and Marciano, R.J. Distributed parallelism: impacts on GIS and collaborative spatial decision-making. Proceedings of GIS/LIS 96. Bethesda, MD: American Congress on Surveying and Mapping, pp. 527-539.

Densham, P.J., Armstrong, M.P., and Kemp, K.K. Collaborative Spatial Decision-Making: Scientific Report for the Initiative 17 Specialist Meeting. NCGIA Technical Report 95-14. Santa Barbara CA: National Center for Geographic Information and Analysis. 186 pp.

1995

Armstrong, M.P. and Marciano, R. Massively parallel processing of spatial statistics. International Journal of Geographical Information Systems, 9 (2): 169-189.

Rushton, G., Armstrong, M.P. and Lolonis, P. Small area student projections based on a modifiable spatial filter. Socio-Economic Planning Sciences, 29 (3): 169-185.

Armstrong, M.P. Is there a role for high performance computing in GIS? Journal of the Urban and Regional Information Systems Association, 7 (1): 7-10.

Armstrong, M.P. and Densham, P.J. A conceptual framework for improving human computer interaction in locational decision-making. In T.L. Nyerges, D.M. Mark, R. Laurini and M.J. Egenhofer, eds. Cognitive Aspects of Human-Computer Interaction for Geographical Information Systems, Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers, pp. 343-354.

Densham, P.J. and Armstrong, M.P. Human-computer interaction: considerations for visual interactive locational analysis. In T.L. Nyerges, D.M. Mark, R. Laurini and M.J. Egenhofer, eds. Cognitive Aspects of Human-Computer Interaction for Geographical Information Systems, Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers, pp. 179-196.

Armstrong, M.P. and Densham, P.J. Toward the development of a conceptual framework for GIS-based collaborative spatial decision-making. Proceedings of the ACM GIS Conference, Gaithersberg, MD.

Armstrong, M.P. and Densham, P.J. Cartographic support for collaborative spatial decision-making. Proceedings of the 12th International Symposium on Automated Cartography (Auto-Carto 12), Bethesda, MD: American Congress on Surveying and Mapping, pp. 49-58.

Chakraborty, J. and Armstrong, M.P. A composite plume approach to assessing community vulnerability to hazardous material accidents. Proceedings of the Annual Conference of the Urban and Regional Information Systems Association, Washington, DC: Urban and Regional Information Systems Association, pp. 249-260.

Pavlik, C.E., Zimmerman, D., Ruggles, A.J. and Armstrong, M.P. The impact of autocorrelated error on the interpolation of spatial surfaces. Proceedings of GIS/LIS 95. Bethesda, MD: American Congress on Surveying and Mapping, Vol 2, pp. 814-823.

Armstrong, M.P. and Densham, P.J. Collaborative spatial decision-making: A look at the dark side. Proceedings of GIS/LIS 95. Bethesda, MD: American Congress on Surveying and Mapping, Vol 1, pp. 11-19.

1994

Armstrong, M.P., Pavlik, C.E. and Marciano, R. Parallel processing of spatial statistics. Computers & Geosciences, 20 (2): 91-104.

Armstrong, M.P. and Marciano, R. Inverse distance weighted spatial interpolation using a parallel supercomputer. Photogrammetric Engineering and Remote Sensing, 60 (10): 1097-1103.

Armstrong, M.P. Requirements for the development of GIS-based group decision support systems. Journal of the American Society for Information Science, 45 (9): 669-677.

Armstrong, M.P., Pavlik, C.E. and Marciano, R. Experiments in the measurement of spatial association using a parallel supercomputer. Geographical Systems, 1 (4): 267-288.

Slocum, T.A., Armstrong, M.P., Bishop, I., Carron, J., Dungan, J., Egbert, S.L., Knapp, L., Okazaki, D., Rhyne, T.M., Rokos, D-K. D., Ruggles, A. J. and Weber, C. R. Visualization software tools. In A.M. MacEachren and D.R.F. Taylor, eds. Visualization in Modern Cartography, White Plains, NY: Elsevier, pp. 91-122.

Densham, P.J. and Armstrong, M.P. A heterogeneous processing approach to spatial decision support systems. In T.C. Waugh and R.G. Healey, eds. Advances in GIS Research, Volume 1. London, UK: Taylor and Francis Publishers, pp. 29-45.

Armstrong, M.P. High performance computing and GIS. Proceedings of GIS/LIS 94, Bethesda, MD: American Congress on Surveying and Mapping, pp. 4-13.

Chakroborty, J. and Armstrong, M.P. Estimating the population characteristics of areas affected by hazardous materials accidents. Proceedings of GIS/LIS 94, Bethesda, MD: American Congress on Surveying and Mapping, pp. 154-163.

Marciano, R., Armstrong, M., Pavlik, C. Experiments in the concurrent computation of spatial association on the KSR-1, CTC94TR164- 1/94, Ithaca, NY: Cornell National Supercomputer Center.

1993

Lolonis, P. and Armstrong, M.P. Location-allocation models as decision aids in delineating administrative regions. Computers, Environment and Urban Systems, 17 (2): 153-174.

Armstrong, M.P., Lolonis, P. and Honey, R. A spatial decision support system for school redistricting. Journal of the Urban and Regional Information Systems Association, 5 (1): 40-52.

Armstrong, M.P. Perspectives on the development of group decision support systems for locational problem-solving. Geographical Systems, 1(1): 69-81.

Armstrong, M.P. On automated geography! The Professional Geographer, 45 (4): 440-442.

Armstrong, M.P. Database integration for knowledge based groundwater quality assessment. Chapter 7 in J.R. Wright, L.L. Wiggins, R. Jain, and T.J. Kim, (eds.) Expert Systems in Environmental Planning. New York: Springer-Verlag, pp. 145-161.

Armstrong, M.P. and Marciano, R. Parallel spatial interpolation. Proceedings of the Eleventh International Symposium on Computer-Assisted Cartography (Auto-Carto 11), Bethesda, MD: American Congress on Surveying and Mapping, pp. 414-423.

Densham, P.J. and Armstrong, M.P. Supporting visual interactive locational analysis using multiple abstracted topological structures. Proceedings of the Eleventh International Symposium on Computer-Assisted Cartography (Auto-Carto 11), Bethesda, MD: American Congress on Surveying and Mapping, pp. 12-22.

Lolonis, P. and Armstrong, M.P. Temporal information in spatial decision support systems. Proceedings of GIS/LIS 93, Volume 1, Bethesda, MD: American Congress on Surveying and Mapping, pp. 438-448.

Bennett, D.A. and Armstrong, M.P. A modelbase management system for geographical analysis. Proceedings of GIS/LIS 93, Volume 1, Bethesda, MD: American Congress on Surveying and Mapping, pp. 48-57.

Rokos, D. and Armstrong, M.P. Computing spatial autocorrelation in parallel: A MIMD implementation for polygon data. Proceedings of GIS/LIS 93, Volume 2, Bethesda, MD: American Congress on Surveying and Mapping, pp. 621-630.

Bennett, D.A. and Armstrong, M.P. An object-oriented geographical modeling system. Proceedings of OOPSLA Simulation Conference, Tempe, AZ.

Armstrong, M.P., Rokos, D. and Ruggles, A. Software Review of Spyglass. Cartography and Geographic Information Systems 21 (1): 52-54.

1992

Armstrong, M.P., Densham, P.J., Lolonis, P. and Rushton, G. Cartographic displays to support locational decision-making. Cartography and Geographic Information Systems, 19 (3): 154-164.

Armstrong, M.P. and Densham, P.J. Domain decomposition for parallel processing of spatial problems. Computers, Environment and Urban Systems, 16 (6): 497-513.

Ding, Y., Densham, P.J. and Armstrong, M.P. Parallel processing for network analysis: decomposing shortest path algorithms on MIMD computers. Proceedings of the Fifth International Symposium on Spatial Data Handling, Volume 2. Columbia, SC: IGU Commission on GIS, pp. 682-691.

Armstrong, M.P. GIS and group decision-making: problems and prospects. Proceedings of GIS/LIS 92, Volume 1, Bethesda, MD: American Congress on Surveying and Mapping, pp. 20-29.

Lolonis, P., Armstrong, M.P. Pavlik, C.E. and Lin, S. Accuracy of a GIS-based small-area population projection method used in spatial decision support systems. Proceedings of GIS/LIS 92, Volume 2, Bethesda, MD: American Congress on Surveying and Mapping, pp. 473-483.

Rokos, D. and Armstrong, M.P. Parallel terrain feature extraction. Proceedings of GIS/LIS 92, Volume 2, Bethesda, MD: American Congress on Surveying and Mapping, pp. 652-661.

1991

Armstrong, M.P., Rushton, G., Honey, R, Dalziel, B.T., Lolonis, P., De, S. and Densham, P.J. Decision support for regionalization: A spatial decision support system for regionalizing service delivery systems. Computers, Environment and Urban Systems, 15 (1): 37-53.

Honey, R., Rushton, G., Armstrong, M.P., Lolonis, P., Dalziel, B.T., De, S. and Densham, P.J. Stages in the adoption of a spatial decision support system for reorganizing service delivery regions. Environment and Planning C: Government and Policy, 9 (1): 51-63.

Armstrong, M.P. and Hopkins, L. D. Data organization for surface water resources information. Journal of the Urban and Regional Information Systems Association, 3 (2): 12-24.

Armstrong, M.P. Knowledge classification and organization for cartographic generalization. Chapter 5 in B.P. Buttenfield and R.B. McMaster, eds. Map Generalization: Making Decisions for Knowledge Representation. London: Longman, pp. 86-102.

Armstrong, M.P., Densham, P.J. and Lolonis, P. Cartographic visualization and user interfaces in spatial decision support systems. Proceedings of GIS/LIS '91, Volume 1. Bethesda, MD: American Congress on Surveying and Mapping, pp. 321-330.

1990

Hanson, J.S., Malanson, G.P. and Armstrong, M.P. Landscape fragmentation and dispersal in a model of riparian forest dynamics. Ecological Modelling, 49: 277-296.

Armstrong, M.P. and Densham, P.J. Database organization strategies for spatial decision support systems. International Journal of Geographical Information Systems, 4 (1): 3-20.

Armstrong, M.P., De, S., Densham, P.J., Lolonis, P., Rushton, G. and Tewari, V. A knowledge based approach for supporting locational decision-making. Environment and Planning B: Planning and Design, 17: 341-364.

Armstrong, M.P. and Bennett, D.A. A bit-mapped classifier for groundwater quality assessment. Computers and Geosciences, 16 (6): 811-832.

Armstrong, M.P. Database integration for knowledge based groundwater quality assessment. Computers, Environment and Urban Systems, 14 (3): 187-201.

Armstrong, M.P. and Bennett, D.A. A knowledge based object-oriented approach to cartographic generalization. Proceedings of GIS/LIS '90, Volume 1. Bethesda, MD: American Congress on Surveying and Mapping, pp. 48-57.

Malanson, G.P. and Armstrong, M.P. Improving environmental simulation models to assess climate change impacts. Discussion Paper No. 43, Iowa City, IA: Department of Geography, The University of Iowa.

1989

Hanson, J.S., Malanson, G.P. and Armstrong, M.P. Spatial constraints on the response of vegetation to climate change. In G.P. Malanson, ed. Natural Areas Facing Climate Change, The Hague: SPB Academic, pp. 1-23.

Armstrong, M.P. and Lolonis, P. Interactive analytical displays for spatial decision support systems. In Proceedings of the Ninth International Symposium on Computer-Assisted Cartography: Auto-Carto 9. Falls Church, VA: American Congress on Surveying and Mapping, pp. 171-180.

Armstrong, M.P. and Dalziel, B. Digitizing and distance estimation errors in spatial analysis: scale and network configuration effects. In Proceedings of the International Geographic Information Systems (IGIS) Symposium 89. Washington, DC: Association of American Geographers, pp. 75-84.

Bennett, D.A. and Armstrong, M.P. An inductive bit-mapped classifier for terrain feature extraction. In Proceedings of GIS/LIS 89, Volume 1. Bethesda, MD: American Congress on Surveying and Mapping, pp. 59-68.

Armstrong, M.P., Densham, P.J. and Bennett, D.A. Object oriented locational analysis. In Proceedings of GIS/LIS 89, Volume 2. Bethesda, MD: American Congress on Surveying and Mapping, pp. 717-726.

1988

Armstrong, M.P. Distance imprecision and error in spatial decision support systems. In Proceedings of the International Geographic Information System (IGIS) Symposium: The Research Agenda, Volume II. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, pp. 23-34.

Armstrong, M.P. Temporality in spatial databases. In GIS/LIS 88 Proceedings: Accessing the World, Volume II. Falls Church, VA: American Society for Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing, pp. 880-889.

Lolonis, P. and Armstrong, M.P. Design of an expert system for spatial analysis. In GIS/LIS 88 Proceedings: Accessing the World, Volume II. Falls Church, VA: American Society for Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing, pp. 800-809.

1987

Armstrong, M.P. Design and implementation of microcomputer based water resources decision support systems. In Proceedings of the Eighth International Symposium on Computer-Assisted Cartography: Auto-Carto Eight. Falls Church, VA: American Society for Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing, and American Congress on Surveying and Mapping, pp. 370-379.

Densham, P.J. and Armstrong, M.P. A spatial decision support system for locational planning: design, implementation and operation. In Proceedings of the Eighth International Symposium on Computer-Assisted Cartography: Auto-Carto Eight. Falls Church, VA: American Society for Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing, and American Congress on Surveying and Mapping, pp. 112-121.

1986

Armstrong, M.P., Densham, P.J. and Rushton, G. Architecture for a microcomputer based spatial decision support system. In Proceedings of the Second International Symposium on Spatial Data Handling. Williamsville, NY: IGU Commission on Geographical Data Sensing and Processing, pp. 120-131.

1985

Hopkins, L.D. and Armstrong, M.P. Analytic and cartographic data storage: a two-tiered approach to spatial decision support systems. In Proceedings of the Seventh International Symposium on Computer-Assisted Cartography: Auto-Carto Seven. Falls Church, VA: American Society for Photogrammetry and American Congress on Surveying and Mapping, pp. 283-292.

1983

Armstrong, M.P. and Hopkins, L.D. Fractal enhancement for thematic display of topologically stored data. In Proceedings of the Sixth International Symposium on Automated Cartography: Auto-Carto Six, Volume 2. Ottawa, Canada: Steering Committee, Sixth International Symposium on Automated Cartography, pp. 309-318.