BA (1951), started career at Buffalo Evening News, moved to Cleveland Plain Dealer, becoming City Hall and State House Correspondent. Won Nieman Fellowship in Journalism at Harvard University (1961-62); editorial director KYW-TV and radio, moving to the New York Times, where he covered labor (1964-65). Joined Newsweek Washington Bureau, economics correspondent; took same assignment at the Los Angeles Times (1967). Was LAT Bureau Chief in Moscow and Bonn and European Economic Correspondent in Brussels; won Loeb Award for economic journalism. Joined AFL-CIO as Information Director (1982-87), moved to Singapore as senior editorial consultant at The Straits Times. Joined International Monetary Fund as assistant director, Department of External Relations (1990-94). In retirement, was senior advisor to curator, Nieman Foundation; Washington Representative, Committee to Protect Journalists; and director of Committee on the Future of Journalism. Taught journalism at U. of Michigan, U. of Maryland, American U., and George Washington U. Visiting journalist in Bangladesh, Indonesia, Jordan, Nigeria, Papua New Guinea, Rwanda, Sri Lanka, and South Africa. Author, Discovering Russia: 200 Years of American Journalism (2005).