Gender, Race, and Ethnicity in Media: Cyberspace


Agent Ruby
Lynn Hershman Web Project, 2001 "This document, written in January 1999, outlines the concept for SRA's (Self Replicating Automatons(TM) as developed in Teknolust, a feature film completed in 2001, and Agent Ruby, a work released online in spring 2002."
Allucquère Rosanne (Sandy) Stone's Homepage
Stone is the author of many articles on cyberculture and gender, some available here and collected in the 1996 book The War of Desire and Technology.
Assemblage: The Women's New Media Gallery
Compiled and curated by Carolyn Guertin, this "international gathering of women's voices is a showcase of new media art being created on and off the World Wide Web. … The common ground here is the non-sequential--the hypertextual--use of words and images to birth possible worlds in this new art form, and to create present tense textual spaces for readers to explore."
Attack Of The Cyber-Weenies
"To get a glimpse of how the other sex lives, people have tried pop psychology, role-playing, cross-dressing, even sex-change operations. Such inefficiency. Me? I just had to use a computer."--K.K. Campbell
Babes on the Web: Sex, Identity and the Home Page
Marj Kibby, Department of Sociology and Anthropology, University of Newcastle, Australia. Originally published in Media International Australia No 84 May 1997:39-45 . "Given that computer mediated communication arguably affords women the opportunity to present themselves in ways which are not bound by such categories as 'sex object', and facilitates the presentation of a self that existed independently of the sexed body, why on so many women's home pages was the sexualised body chosen as a primary image of self? "
Being Digital, and Domestically Challenged
By portraying cyberspace as a dangerous place for women, positive and encouraging accounts about the constructive and community-building nature of networking for many women have been ignored. --Leslie Regan Shade
Black Women on the Net
A compilation of links from Womenspace
Body Language: Text and Gender Online
David K. Balcom - "If you're a woman, just log onto the Vax at night and see which guy PHONEs you, asks you "Whatcha doin here tonight? Wanna talk?" and this liberating e-space starts to look like a singles bar, one where you're just another chick on a stool. "Wanna talk?"
Bodies and Technologies: Dora,  Neuromancer  and Strategies of Resistance (U.Iowa or other subscribing institution only)
A 1993 article by Wendy Wahl in PostModern Culture
Center for Women and Information Technology
Extensive news, announcements, and resources related to women/gender and information technology. Includes an enormous collection of web-based syllabi for women- and gender-related courses (> 550 syllabi), arranged by subject, and links to several other collections.
Coming Apart at the Seams
by Shannon McRae. "Coming Apart at the Seams is a paper about embodiment, gender, and the transformative possibilities of erotic encounters in text-based virtual worlds. Forthcoming in April 1996 in Wired Women: Gender and Social Reality in Cyberspace, eds. Lynn Cherny and Elizabeth Weise.
Computer-Mediated Communication Magazine - Gender Issue, March, 1996
In "a medium where one can construct or discard identities at whim, why are people bringing a gender identity online?" A better than usual edition of a theory-lite publication.
Coverley, M.D.
The portal to the works of multimedia author Marjorie Coverley Luesebrink, a.k.a. M.D. Coverley
Cyberfeminism - Nancy Paterson
"The powerful woman, bitch/goddess, ice queen, android, is represented in popular culture as a 21st century Pandora. And the box which she holds this time is electronic and very definitely plugged in."
Cyberfeminism With a Difference
In this article, I will first of all situate the question of cyber-bodies in the framework of postmodernity, stressing the paradoxes of embodiment. I will subsequently  play a number of variations on the theme of cyber-feminism, highlighting the issue of sexual difference throughout. -- Rosi Braidotti
Grrrls, according to Amelia DeLoach, "make no apologies for holding and disseminating feminist views. And they unwittingly serve as the founders of a language reclamation movement while adding clothed women's sites to the World Wide Web." Aliza Sherman, who produces Cybergrrl was one of the first to hit the Web.
The Cyber Sisters Club: Using the Internet to Bridge the Technology Gap with Inner City Girls
For 15 girls from an inner city elementary school in Allentown, Pennsylvania, the after school Cyber Sisters Club means a rare chance to experience the technology that is changing the world around them. --Judy Lichtman, 1998 T.H.E. Journal
Cyborg Consciousness
"Explorations of feminist and other visionary texts about body, mind, machine, resistence, contradiction, virtuality, the breakdown of dualisms and the demise of hierarchies." A class syllabus by Michael Joyce with linked bibliography.
Duppies in the Machine,
or, "Anybody Know Where I Can Buy a Copy of The Upnorth-Outwest Geechee Jibara Quik Magic Trance Manual for Technologically Stressed Third World People?" - Kalí Tal analyzes the meaning of blackness in cyberspace.
Electronic Fans, Interpretive Flames: Performing Queer
"Since "cyberspace" is, at its core, an interactive environment, the structure of sex must depend upon the presentations and agents of sexuality. For my purposes, talking about the sexual nature of cyberspace demands discussion of the configurations of sexuality, discussions that consolidate around the question: how does a sexy place accommodate presentations and negotiations of sexuality?" --Allison Fraiberg
The Personal Homepages of the Female Masses "fem•mass is dedicated to the women of the Web whose personal homepages shine."
Gaze Surfing: Riding the Pleasure Set
My interest is to initiate a theoretical discussion concerning the personal and social involvement of individuals in cyberspace in terms of their interactions with the medium and with other users via textual, verbal, and visual exchange. Author unidentified except as - The server for this site is frequently down.
Another grrrl, (see above) Rosie X started this page in 1995. Lots of substantive content, great interviews, thought provoking articles, campy images and interesting artwork. Highly recommended.
"is an applied research project whose mandate is to create conditions within which girls and women have maximum access to, and confidence in, a wide range of new information technologies."
Gender and Democracy in Computer-Mediated Communication
Susan C. Herring, U. of Texas at Austin. "The claim that computers democratize communication is evaluated with respect to male and female participation."
Gender and Technology Research
"GenTech is an applied research project whose mandate is first to understand and then to create conditions within which girls and women have maximum access to, and confidence in, a wide range of new information technologies."
Gender Differences in Computer-Mediated Communication: Bringing Familiar Baggage to the New Frontier
Susan Herring - Keynote talk at panel entitled "Making the Net*Work*: Is there a Z39.50 in gender communication?", American Library Association annual convention, Miami, June 27, 1994.
Gender Differences in Text-Based Virtual Reality
Paper delivered at the April, 1994 Berkeley Conference on Women and Language. Author: Lyn Cherny, Linguistics Dept. Stanford. "Curious as to whether gender differences of more subtle sorts are carried into cyberspace, I took a look at gendered behavior in a text-based virtual reality, or MUD (multi-user dimension), in which I am a participant-observer."
Gender Issues in Computer Networking
Talk given at: Community Networking: the International Free-Net Conference, 1993
Gender Issues in Computer Networking
Electronic Journal of Virtual Culture's Special Issue on Gender Issues in Computer Networking, July 26, 1994 Volume 2 Issue 3. Guest Editor: Leslie Regan Shade
Gender Issues Directory
check before adding several links didn't work 6/22 Many links to gender and computer issues pages.
Gender Issues in Online Communications
Hoai-An Troung with additional writing and editing by Gail Williams, Judi Clark and Anna Couey in conjunction with Members of BAWiT -- Bay Area Women in Telecommunications, 1993.
Gender, Sex and the Web
A page of links to online articles compiled by Marj Kibby, Department of Sociology and Anthropology, The University of Newcastle
Gender Swapping on the Internet
Amy S. Bruckman, 1993. This paper introduces MUDs, and then presents a community discussion about gender issues that MUDs inspired.
Gender, Technology, and Computer Culture
Syllabus by Sherry Turkle for 1995 class at M.I.T. with linked bibliography.
"Have you ever met someone across a crowded T-1 and thought to yourself..."Yeah, her .gif is hot, and sure, she knows how to use email attachments, but does she really know how to give great web?"
Glass Houses
A tour of American Assimilation from a Mexican-American perspective by Jacalyn Lopez Garcia
"We are committed to discussing issues that affect the lives of girls age 14 and up in a non-judgemental, personal way. Through honest writing, visuals and liberal use of humor, we try to give girls a new way of looking at subjects that are crucial to their lives. Our content deals frankly with sexuality, emotions, body image, etc."
Hedy Lamarr hailed for key commtech invention
"The next time you pick up a cellular phone, give a brief thought to the improbable woman who first patented some of its underlying technology 55 years ago -- "the most beautiful girl in the world," actress Hedy Lamarr." --1997 and The Associated Press
I'd Rather be a Sinner than a Cyborg (UI access only)
Lucy Tatman, European Journal of Women's Studies: Feb. 2003, 10:1 - available to U. Iowa people electronically. May be available to other university libraries via EBSCOhost. "…This article explores the possibility that Haraway's cyborg is a saviour-figure, made partially in the image of a transcendent God. It suggests that cyborgs do have an origin story, and that their story is inseparably linked to the theological development of Heilsgeschichte, or salvation history, which is itself linked, arguably, to the technological developments of the Industrial Revolution…"
Identity and the Cyborg Body
"MUD characters are much more than a few bytes of computer data--they are cyborgs, a manifestation of the self beyond the realms of the physical, existing in a space where identity is self-defined rather than pre-ordained." -- Elizabeth Reid
The Ironic Dream of a Common Language for Women in the Integrated Circuit:
Science, Technology, and Socialist Feminism in the 1980s or A Socialist Feminist Manifesto for Cyborgs. By Donna Haraway "This is an early version of Donna Haraway's influential essay "A Cyborg Manifesto: Science, Technology, and Socialist-Feminism in the Late Twentieth Century." The complete version appears in Haraway's book Simians, Cyborgs and Women: The Reinvention of Nature   (New York: Routledge, 1991): 149-181."
Is the Web Too Cool for Blacks?
"African-Americans aren't rushing online because the new medium butts heads with their traditional values and desires." by Leonce Gaiter, Salon Magazine.
Kate Bornstein: A Transgender Transsexual Postmodern Tiresias
Shannon Bell's interview with Kate Bornstein in CTheory
Leslie's World O'Chicks
"An eddy of estrogen in the vast sea of testosterone that is the Internet."
Life on the Screen: Overview
Identity in the Age of the Internet - Sherry Turkle's book about people and how computers are causing us to reevaluate our identities in the age of the Internet.
Modem Grrrl
"Jude Milhon is a hacker. St. Jude, as she is known, has been messing with code since 1967, when she taught herself Fortran and assembly code for the 1440. Once a Unix programmer, she "speaks C++ without an accent." Starting in 1973, long before CompuServe or easy access to the Net, Milhon was a member of a "lefto-revolutionist programming commune" in Berkeley, California, that created the legendary Community Memory project, the first public online computer system. She is a charter member of the cypherpunks - a term she coined."--Rosie Cross
Navigating the Image of Women Online
Kristine Blair and Pamela Takayosi. "This commentary is an excerpt from the introduction to our co-edited collection, Feminist Cyberscapes: Essays on Gender in Electronic Spaces, currently under contract to Ablex press as part of the series New Directions in Computers and Composition Studies."
Native American Cybernetics: Indigenous Knowledge Resources in Information Technology
"The term “indigenous knowledge” usually refers to the understanding of natural processes, such as ethnobotany or ethnomedicine. Yet Native American knowledge systems include many aspects of contemporary information technologies, and native communities have become increasingly adept in appropriating computing and communication devices for their own use. I refer to this complex of indigenous and appropriated information technologies as Native American Cybernetics. --Ron Eglash"
The Natural Order of Things: South Africa
"Colette Gaiter, interactive multimedia artist, looks at race, culture, and gender in post-apartheid South Africa and the United States."
Pheminist Cyber RoadShow
An Austrian page of WWWeb resources in English and German.
Pornography, the Internet, and Student-to-Student Sexual Harassment:
A Dilemma Resolved with Title VII and Title IX by Evelyn Oldenkamp in Duke Journal of Gender Law & Policy 4:1 Spring 1997. "This article proposes that student use of the Internet within university computer centers to view pornography should give rise to a per se hostile environment sexual harassment claim, and that such claims should be brought by students against their peers under university conduct codes and disciplinary procedures."
Queer Spaces, Modem Boys, and Pagan Statues: Gay/Lesbian Identity and the Construction of Cyberspace
An overview of the gay and lesbian spaces on four different computer systems and a survey of their dominant features reveals both the constraints of each system and the particular constructions of gay and/or lesbian identity that undergird it. --Randal Woodland
Rape in Cyberspace
How an Evil Clown, a Haitian Trickster Spirit, Two Wizards, and a Cast of Dozens Turned a Database Into a Society By Julian Dibbell, 1993.
Race In/For Cyberspace: Identity Tourism and Racial Passing on the Internet
Players [in LambdaMOO] who elect to describe themselves in racial terms, as Asian, African American, Latino, or other members of oppressed and marginalized minorities, are often seen as engaging in a form of hostile performance, since they introduce what many consider a real life "divisive issue" into the phantasmatic world of cybernetic textual interaction. --Lisa Nakamura
The Race for Cyberspace: Information Technology in the Black Diaspora
A draft of an article by Ron Eglash and Julian Bleecker scheduled to appear in Science as Culture. "Focusing on the black diaspora, we broaden the category of "information technology" to show how traditions of coding and computation from indigenous African practices and black appropriations of Euro-american technologies have supported, resisted, and fused with the cybernetic histories of the west, and provide a strong source for changes in reconstructing identity, social postition and access to power in communities of the black diaspora."
Sexuality and Cyberspace: Performing the Digital Body
A special issue of Women & Performance: A Journal of Feminist Theory,   edited by Stacy Horn and Theresa M. Senft. "Our book uses an arsenal of techniques -- first-person narrative, substantial online experience, feminist, queer and postcolonial theories -- in order to address the latest intersections of identity, sexuality, and the Internet."
Sexualities in Cyberspace
What differences, if any, emerge in the performances of sexuality in cyberspace versus face-to-face encounters? If cyberspace sexualities alter the hegemonic "real life" configurations of heterosexism, how can locating the dynamics of queer net sexualities challenge those assumptions? --Allison Fraiberg
Shelley Jackson's "Ineradicable Stain"
Multimedia forms -- hypertext fiction, MP3 music/poetry, graphic arts. "Shelley Jackson was extracted from the bum leg of a water buffalo in 1963 in the Philippines and grew up complaining in Berkeley, California. Bravely overcoming a chronic pain in her phantom limb, she extracted an AB in art from Stanford and an MFA in creative writing from Brown. She has spent most of her life in used bookstores, smearing unidentified substances on the spines, and is duly obsessed with books: paper, glue, and ink. Nonetheless, she is most widely recognized for an electronic text, Patchwork Girl, a hypertext reworking of the Frankenstein myth. "
Technology Policy, Gender, and Cyberspace
by Cheris Kramarae - from Duke Journal of Gender Law & Policy 4:1 Spring 1997. "Making cyberspace hospittable - participatory education: recognition and respect - inclusion of women's knowledge in electronic education - women's participation in making technology policy."
Technology Versus African-Americans
From the caravel to the cotton gin, technological innovation has made things worse for blacks. Will the information revolution be any different? by Anthony Walton, Atlantic Monthly, January, 1999.
These Waves of Girls
A hypermedia novela by Caitlin Fisher. Winner of the Electronic Literature Organization's 2001 Award for Fiction.
Thoughts on Web Pages Listing Women
by Ellen Spertus, 1995. Superseded by "Social and Technical Means for Fighting Harassment Online" prompted, in part, by Robert Toups' infamous "Babes on the Web" pages.
The Unbearable Whiteness of Being: African American Critical Theory and Cyberculture
By Kali Tal - "…African American critical theory provides very sophisticated tools for the analysis of cyberculture, since African American critics have been discussing the problem of multiple identities, fragmented personae, and liminality for over a hundred years."
Urban Decay
"[Sandy] Lerner has started a cosmetics company, Urban Decay, that hopes to be to the makeup industry what Morticia Addams was to the family sitcom. After months of frustration finding high-quality, dark-shaded polishes (that had not been tested on animals!), Ms. Lerner finally decided this summer to create her own line of alternative colors. She expects to have them in stores around year-end with the "Does Pink Make You Puke?" line on the ads."
Venus in Microsoft: Male Mas(s)ochism and Cybernetics
Stephen Pfohl's article in CTheory
Virtual Concrete
This art site seems to be in the process of "morphing" into another, but still contains some engaging material on bodies, identification, digital, virtual and cyborg ideas and realities. Some of the links will take you to the new site, Bodies© INCorporated.
Virtue and Virtuality: Gender, Law, and Cyberspace (PDF file)
A conference cosponsored by the MIT Program in Women's Studies, and the offices of the Deans of Humanities and Social Science and Engineering in April, 1996. Papers online by: Anne Branscomb, Amy Bruckman, L. Jean Camp, Julian Dibbell, Jeffrey Fisher, Ethan Katsh, Evelyn Fox Keller, Larry Lessig, Jennifer Mnookin, Eben Moglen, Howard Schweber, Leslie Shade, & Ellen Spertus.
Visible Woman: Make Your Own
"The National Library of Medicine Visible Human project provides XRAY Computed Tomography (CT), Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) and physical cross-sectional data. This paper describes how to use the Visualization Toolkit to create surface models of the bone and skin from the Visible Woman's CT data."
VNS Matrix
The VNS Matrix (Josephine Starrs, Julianne Pierce, Francesca da Rimini and Virginia Barratt) emerged from the cyberswamp during a Southern Australian Summer circa 1991, on a mission to hijack the toys from technocowboys and remap cyberculture with a feminist bent.
The Women's College Magazine at Santa Monica College (California)
Weavers of Webs: A Portrait of Young Women on the Net
Nancy Kaplan and Eva Farrell - originally published by the Electronic Journal of Virtual Culture, 1994. Explores how a"cohort [of adolescent women] acquainted with electronic technologies from a relatively early age conceptualizes computing tools and their relations to these instruments.
Web-sters' Net-Work: Women in Info Technology
Links, bibliographies, directories, organizations, newsgroups and more.
Webgrrls Unite!
A directory of women with their own web pages. There are also several "real-world, face-to-face networking" groups around the country. Contact information here.
Why Systers? - Anita Borg
Article about systers by Anita Borg from Computing Research News, 1993. Systers is a women-only email discussion group.
Wild Thing - Palsmeier
Wild Thing: Imagined Virtual Reality Systems in Marvel Comics' Nikki Doyle by Julie Palsmeier. "Nikki Doyle deepens our understanding of the interrelations between gender and psychoanalytic theories on technology..." From Thresholds: Viewing Culture vol. 9.
Women and Information Technologies: Creating a Cyberspace of Our Own
Maureen Ebben and Cheris Kramarae - "In this essay we focus on some of the key problematic issues faced by women as we try to establish our rightful place within the complex nexus of new information technologies."
Women and Technology
Volume 2, Issue 2 of Riding the Meridian
Women and Technology, Beyond the Binary
A Roundtable Discussion with N. Katherine Hayles, Marjorie Perloff, Diane Greco, Linda Carroli and Shelley Jackson, hosted by Jennifer Ley. From Riding the Meridian, 2:1
Men and Women on Electronic Networks: A Conversation or a Monologue?
Cheris Kramarae and H. Jeanie Taylor. "Here, we focus on what is happening in the universities, organizations that have a particular interest in freedom of speech, openness, innovation, and the free exchange of ideas."
Women and Information Technology: An Annotated Bibilography
Excellent, large (26 pages) broadly focused, but dated bibliography (nothing later than 1991). Compiled by Maureen Ebben and Maria Mastronardi for The Women, Information Technology, and Scholarship (WITS) colloquium, University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign.
Women Making Meaning: Moving Through the Cracks
Bridget Mallon, of Carleton University, wrote this paper on women on the Internet.
Zoe Sofoulis on Cyberfeminism
"Cyberfeminism The world, the flesh, and the woman-machine relationship" an article in Geekgirl.  On point-and-click interfaces: " Enthusiasts of this form of interactivity often conflate its non-linearity with a 'democracy' akin to consumer choice, where the 'citizen' has little more power than a supermarket shopper: they are free to choose which aisle to navigate first, but not what aisles are there; free to select but not determine which products are displayed."
See Also: Digital Media